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Monday, September 25, 2017

Learn How to Control Your Home Appliances by using 4-Channel Infrared Remote transmitter

"To make a 4 channel IR Remote Control that can control household appliances"
·       This is useful for such people who can't walk due to any physical disability and also for elderly people.
·       We have used an IR remote controlling instead of RF because of a reason that it can be used to operate a television, sound system, DVD players etc meanwhile it can be used to operate different household appliances because IR is a directional phenomenon.
·       Whereas RF is non-directional and have many more uses over IR.

Equipment and Components Used:
·       Pushbuttons
          ·          Regulator IC 7805
·       PLD (GAL - 16V8)
·       Encoder HT 12E
·       555 Timer IC
·       AND Gate - 7408
·       IR Transmitter LED
·       Transistor BC 547

·       IR Receiver (T-Sop-1738)
·       Regulator IC 7805
·       Decoder HT 12D
·       PLD (GAL - 16V8)
·       JK Flip-flops(7476)
·       Relay Switches
·       Transistors BC 548
·       AC LOAD

A remote control is Consumer IR device which sends digitally-coded pulses of infrared radiation to control functions such as turning on lights, power, volume, tuning, temperature set point, fan speed, and many other features. Remote control for these devices are usually small wireless handheld objects with an array of buttons (4 in our project) for adjusting various devices; the remote control contains all the function controls while the controlled device itself has only a handful of essential primary controls.
Since infrared (IR) remote controls use light, they require a line of sight to operate the destination device. The signal can, however, be reflected by mirrors, just like any other light source.
If the operation is required where no line of sight is possible, for instance when controlling equipment in another room or installed in a cabinet, many brands of IR extenders are available for this on the market. Most of these have an IR receiver, picking up the IR signal and relaying it via radio waves to the remote control, which has an IR transmitter mimicking the original IR control.
Infrared receivers also tend to have a more or less limited operating angle, which mainly depends on the optical characteristics of the phototransistor. However, it's easy to increase the operating angle using a matter transparent object in front of the receiver.
 Source Code :
This Project is Made By 
Umer Anjum AND M Suleman Khan  Department of Applied Physics Karachi University

Xiaomi Mi Note 2: Full Details, Features, Photos, Design and overall specification

Overall Rating: 8.6/ 10

Image result for Xiaomi Mi Note 2Pros:

  • Beautiful and vibrant display
  • Premium metal body
  • Fast fingerprint scanner
  • Large Battery life
  • Great Performance


  • Lack of expandable storage
  • Nothing unique about the camera
  • Fingerprint build up on the device is an issue


Chinese Manufacturer Xiaomi is really starting to become a show stopper in the Smartphone market. It continues to provide its users with eye-catching specifications and build quality. This time with its release of Xiaomi Mi Note 2 it has become head to head with Samsung Galaxy Note 7. Let's find out what makes Xiaomi Mi Note 2 so appealing, and you can decide if it really is a worthy alternative of Samsung Galaxy Note 7.
Xiaomi Mi Note 2 has an overall attractive design, its polished body shows off two beautifully curved edges which make it really comfortable to hold. The bezels are slightly thicker which makes the 5.7-inch display look a bit wider, but thankfully the curved edges cover that up. Its metallic body is covered with 3D glass, the front and back of the device are both curved and it just looks magnificent. The only problem you might face is with the smudges and fingerprints which it collects which ruin the handset's beauty
Mi Note 2 features a pretty clean design, at the front you can see a single button at the bottom of the display, that is the home button which doubles as the fingerprint scanner. On either side of the home button, there are navigation buttons; Users can customize them as the back button or the home button. The back side only houses the rear camera, LED flash and the Mi logo. The camera lies slightly lower than we expected but that’s not such a worry. On the right edge you get the power button and the volume rocker and on the left edge, there is a slot for the SIM tray. On the top side you will find the 3.5mm headphone jack and on the bottom edge lies the USB-C port, speaker, and the microphone.
Mi Note 2 supports a 5.7 inch AMOLED display with 1080 x 1920 pixels of resolution. You will find its display much better than many flagship mobiles out there. The automatic brightness adjustment works out nicely, you can also set the brightness yourself making it perfect for viewing outdoors. There is also a reading mode so that you won't have to strain your eyesight at night. The colors are splendid and you can also set the screen contrast and saturation according to taste.
Xiaomi Mi Note 2 has stocked up everything which you would expect in a flagship Smartphone. It comes powered by Qualcomm Snapdragon 821 chipset along with 6 GB of RAM. During usage, you won't notice the slightest of lag, whether you're gaming or multitasking. It easily handles intensive gaming thanks to the Adreno 530 GPU included in the chipset. Jumping between apps and web browses is no problem at all. Overall performance is top-notch.
Mi offers a pretty large battery “4070 mAh”, considering that it only supports 1080 p resolution with the thickness of the phone around 7.6 mm. The battery is huge. You can easily go through a full day and even more with normal usage. The 4070 mAh battery also comes with the quick charging ‘Quick Charge 3.0’.
Considering the fingerprint sensor, you won't have any complaints. It is quick and responsive and detects your fingerprint each time. The fingerprint sensor can also be used for locking apps, android play, and Google Play Store aside from securing your phone. When it comes to the speakers, its unfortunate that Mi couldn’t get front-facing speakers. However, you should know that its speaker on the bottom panel will not fail to impress you. They provide clear and bassy audio and work just fine when you have them cranked up high. So that’s another plus point for ‘Mi note 2’.
Mi Note 2 comes powered with a 22.56 megapixels rear camera (f/2.0 aperture) and an 8 megapixels front camera. Xiaomi hasn’t added anything unique in its camera department, yet they are not bad. The rear camera shoots some great pictures in daylight but it fails to deliver in artificial light and at night time. There is no optical image stabilization, most users might struggle to get used to that. The camera offers a number of filters and modes like HHT, Straighten, beautify and group selfie mode. There is also 4k video shooting which provides results that are not perfect but not too bad either.


Image result for Xiaomi Mi Note 2
Display size: 5.7 inches

Resolution: 1080 x 1920 pixels
Battery capacity: 4070 mAh
Processor: Qualcomm Snapdragon 821
Operating System: Android
Rear Camera: 22.56 MP
Front Camera: 8 MP
RAM: 6 GB /4 GB
Internal Storage: 64 GB
Connectivity: Wi-fi, GPS, Bluetooth, NFC, USB OTG, Dual SIM

Saturday, September 23, 2017

Fully Funded Bachelors Masters and PHD Scholarship Offered around the world for International Students 2017-2018

Here is the list of fully funded scholarships around the globe for International Students.

Official Links of these scholarships are given below, If you have any query about any Scholarship feel free to comment below we will try to guide you about that scholarship.

Download international format of CV writing, Research CVs, CV templates

List of Important Documents for Download - Free 2017

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home

Hello Electronics Lovers, as we know that its dream of every student to make a simple robot for their semester project at University. The Working function of this robot is simple, it will divert its path whenever it detects obstacles on its way. 

1) Car body :
                             You need to search for old Remote Control Car or make your own by using the wood frame and nut bolts. I made my own car, As you can see in the below picture.  
Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home
2) Dc Motors and ICs: 
                                        Kindly attach 4 Dc Motors accurately with front and back wheels of the car. With the help of a schematic diagram, you can easily connect each motor drive ic L293D with 4 Dc motors. Make your circuit on wire board and tied up above the car by using nuts bolts. 

 3) IR sensors :
Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home                              One of the most and important component used in this robot is Infrared Sensor (IR) Module, IR sensors work like eyes for this robot. IR sensor will emit infrared rays continuously in different directions for a short distance, whenever an obstacle comes on its way it will reflect those infrared waves back towards IR receiver led (Black one in the IR module). 
Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home An infrared receiver will send the commands to inform a microcontroller to divert its path because something is present in the track. If you want To increase the accuracy of this robot, for this purpose you need to use multiple IR sensor modules, it will help to cover and search the surrounding areas more precisely. 

Heart of this project is G16V8 Microcontroller, it will receive commands from different IR sensor module to avoid this robot from any kind of obstacle. Everyone knows that most ICs available in the market work in 5Vdc so for this purpose we have used 7805 regulator ic (Use Heat Sink for it) in this project, it will step down your 9v Dc to 5Vdc. 

Schematic Diagram : 

Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home
 Rest of the project is easy and simple, otherwise, if you found any difficulty while making this project so don't hesitate to ask anything related to this project from us we are here to help you anytime. 

This Project is Made By M.Ali Taimure and M. Waqar Younis Department of Applied Physics University of Karachi. 

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Step by step tutorial on Interfacing of Seven Segment Display with Arduino in Proteus

Hello Electronics Lovers, today I am going to show you that how to interface Seven Segment display with Arduino in Proteus. I am assuming that everyone who is reading this post will know basics of Seven segment display, in short, seven segment display is an electronic component having the ability to show numeric data to a user. Normally you will find Seven Segments Displays easily in different colors in the market. Basically, seven segment display is the combination of Multiple LEDs, resistors, and an ic. It is available in Different sizes and shapes. 

Let's come to the point, in the first step you need to Download the source code for Seven segment display.  After downloading source code the next task is to make hex file from that code. For this purpose, you need to copy that code and put it on  Arduino Software (IDE). In past tutorial " Download Arduino Library for Proteus 7 & 8 (Updated version) ", I have explained the overall process in step no 5 that how to make Hex file from source code in Arduino Software (IDE).

I am assuming that latest version of Proteus simulation software has been installed on your pc. Before going to open Proteus software Kindly install Arduino libraries for proteus Download Arduino Library for Proteus 7 & 8 (Updated version).   

Once you have done all the above steps, go and search for Arduino and seven segment display in Proteus, make sure that you drag both components to the main window of Proteus correctly as shown in the given picture below. Connect your seven segment display and Arduino Uno properly with respective pins.

  A complete step by step tutorial on Interfacing of Seven Segment by using its library with Arduino in Proteus
Double click on Arduino board to upload a Hex file of seven segment display to Arduino board. The last and final step is to Run the simulation, hopefully, you will see numeric counting in seven segment display from 0 to 9 in a loop. If you want to add another display, LCD, and sensors to the existing circuitry. Yes, You can easily upgrade the above circuitry and code as per your requirement.  

If you found any difficulty while making this project in Proteus so don't hesitate to ask we are here to help you anytime. 

Monday, September 18, 2017

BlackBerry Keyone Review: Full Details, Features, Photos, Design and Display

Image result for blackberry keyone review cnetBlackBerry paired up with TCL (a Chinese corporation) to manufacture a Smartphone that just might be the 'next big hit'. With so much Smartphone fiasco in the market, we just want something absolutely original and unique. But from what we get every other day in the market, it's starting to feel like Smartphone manufacturers have run out of ideas. From the look of BlackBerry's product "BlackBerry KEYone"  it definitely shouts out unique, it resurrects a physical keyboard but what else does it have stocked up? And has BlackBerry provided its consumers with a device that will lure them towards itself? Maybe KEYone is BlackBerry's last chance to come out of the depths. We will briefly discuss this device.

Overall Rating: 8.5 / 10


  • Solid Design, well built
  • Physical Keyboard
  • Large battery
  • Fast Charging
  • Expandable Storage


  • Not so great on Entertainment
  • Camera Quality isn't impressive
  • Performance is slightly slow
  • Dual Speakers are missing


Blackberry was more focused on fabricating a productivity Smartphone. Coming with a sophisticated design it looks like its back in business. It shows off a soft textured black back with an anodized aluminum frame, the metal body is slick and well built. The slightly thicker aluminum body boosts prominent looking rear and front cameras and the side buttons. The Spacebar featured on the Keyboard doubles as the fingerprint sensor, its springy performance is quite impressive.
Blackberry has a slightly different approach in the positioning of its buttons. The power button can be found on the left side and the volume rocker on the left. You can find the 3.5 mm headphone jack on the top edge and a reversible USB-C charging port on the bottom edge. KEYone also includes a microSD card slot and a customisable Convenience key. At the bottom of the phone, you will also find the speaker grille (BTW sound quality is pretty decent). What we don't understand is why Blackberry opted for navigation keys up front and the Convenience key, they do feature a smart keyboard with a number of shortcut options. The rubber textured back and the overall thicker body makes the phone easy to handle, but it's obvious that it's not made for single-handed use.


The keyboard sitting at the front is definitely the center of attention. At the first glance it might look too small, but like Blackberry's previous versions you can easily get the grip of it. Getting used to it will take some time, some mistakes will be drawn into your text initially. The keys are clicky but soft and curved around the edges, it feels pretty good typing on it. One of the best features about the keyboard is that its got 52 customisable keys, long or short pressing any key will take you somewhere within seconds. Long pressing the "I" key will direct you to the home screen and instantly take you to Instagram, pressing the "e" key will take you to your emails and "b" will direct you to your browser. You can play with it all you want.
Having a keyboard up front does take some compromising with the display, KEYone houses the smallest display with an aspect ratio of 3:2. The screen is 4.5 inch IPS LCD display with a resolution of 1620 x 1080 pixels. It is bright and vibrant with elegantly balanced colors, but we cant get the same kick out of it that we get from a larger display. It's not the best for gaming or for watching videos.
KEYone runs on the midrange Qualcomm Snapdragon 625 processor with 3 GB of RAM. As compared to the high-end Smartphones that we get these days, KEYone doesn't pack the best power under its hood. Yet its performance is fairly well, you might face some problem with lag while loading graphics intensive apps or games, but once you're in everything works out fluently. BlackBerry did an amazing job in the battery department, KEYone comes powered with a 3,505 mAh battery. You can easily get about 6 hours of screen on time and about 4.5 hours for continuous use. It also comes with 2 modes for charging 'Charge only mode' and the 'Boost' mode. With the simple charge mode you get the regular fast charging from the Quick Charge 3.0, but with the Boost mode, you can quickly charge your Smartphone up to about 50% within 36 minutes.
The Camera on KEYone is just above average, featuring a 12 Megapixels rear shooter and an 8 Megapixels front Cam. The rear Camera has an aperture of f/ 2.o, the number of pixels and the lens are same as those on Google's Pixel. However, its result isn't the same. The pictures lack a significant amount of detail and sharpness even in daylight and in dim light the camera begs for optical image stabilization. The front selfie camera provides better quality in good light whereas in slightly dim conditions it faces the same problems.


Image result for blackberry keyone review cnetThe main attraction of BlackBerry KEYone is its high-tech keyboard. Its design works out well and is well built, the performance is fairly good. KEYone is one of the best phones we have gotten from BlackBerry in a while, and it's definitely a good effort. However, it misses out on a number of key points like the display, midrange CPU, and the camera. Because there are a lot of high-end Smartphones out there, KEYone will not be able to attract the attention of many consumers.


Screen Size: 4.5 inches
Resolution: 1620 x 1080 pixels
Battery Capacity: 3505 mAh
Internal Storage: 32 GB
Expandable Storage: 2 TB
Processor: Qualcomm Snapdragon 625
Operating System: Android 7.1
Rear Camera: 12 Megapixels
Front Camera: 8 Megapixels
Connectivity: Wi-Fi, GPS, Bluetooth, NFC

Sunday, September 10, 2017

What does it mean by Electromagnetism

Image result for electromagnetismStarting off with the definition of a Magnetic material:
Any material which has its atoms ordered such that it exhibits the properties of magnetism.

Any metal can be turned into a magnet giving it the characteristics of:

Temporary Magnetism: Rub a metal on an already existing magnet in one direction, this process will cause the metal to polarize and inherent magnetic properties. But this will only last for a small while.

Permanent Magnetism: If a metal is permanently polarized then it will not lose its magnetic properties. The best way to make a strong magnet is by inducing a magnetic field using an electric current.

In order to tell the strength of a magnet the units "Weber" and "Maxwell" are used, these units are defined using the "magnetic flux", Magnetic flux is the total number of magnetic lines passing through a unit area (denoted by Φ or ΦB). 

1 Maxwell (Mx) = 1 magnetic line of force
1 Weber (Wb) = 10^8 Maxwell

You cannot tell the strength of a magnet just by the number of magnetic lines of force passing through it, you need to know the relative area of the surfaces in comparison. Simply put it, you need to know the flux density (B). And you need to know the angle which the surface makes with the lines of force, (the angle between the normal of a surface and the flux).

Φ=BA ----> NΦ= NBA (for more than one turn) 
B= Φ/A ----> (Weber/ meter^2)

The flux density is measured using the unit "Tesla"

1 Tesla = 1 Weber/ meter^2 
similarly 1 Gauss = 1 Mx/ cm^2

1 Wb/m^2 = (10^8)/(100^2) 
= 10^4 Mx /cm^2
That means: 1 Tesla = 10^4 Gauss

Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic induction states

Faradays Law of Electromagnetic induction states that when ever a conductor is placed in a magnetic field such that the flux through it changes an EMF is induced in the conductor.
that means that: EMF is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux.
There are two types of induced EMFs. Namely Dynamically induced EMF and Statically induced EMF.

Dynamically induced EMF: Produced by either the movement of the conductor or the magnet.

Statically induced EMF: Produced by the change in current direction. Further more there are two types of statically induced EMFs
1) Self-induced EMF
2) Mutually induced EMF

Lens's Law states that a cause always opposes the effect. This law is also used to predict the direction of current flow, and it obeys the conservation law of energy.

Generators: These are devices or machines which convert mechanical energy to electrical energy using the concept of "Electro magnetic induction".

A generator, in fact, comprises of two parts, the engine, and the generator. The engine converts the fuel to mechanical energy and the generator converts the mechanical energy to electrical energy.

"A generator simply directs the flow of charges already present in a conductor coil"

The energy produced from a generator depends upon the following:

1) The strength of the magnetic field

2) The number of turns in the coil

3) Angle at which the conductor cuts the magnetic field

In order to find the direction of the current flow you must know the left-hand rule:
Left-Hand Rule:

1) Adjust your hand such that your index finger points toward the direction of the magnetic field (From north to south).

2) Point your thumb towards the direction of the movement of the conductor (it can be left, right, inward, outward).

3) Adjust your middle finger such that it makes an angle of 90 degrees with your index finger and the thumb, in this position the middle finger points towards the direction of the current flow.

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