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Saturday, September 23, 2017

Fully Funded Bachelors Masters and PHD Scholarship Offered around the world for International Students 2017-2018

Here is the list of fully funded scholarships around the globe for International Students.

Official Links of these scholarships are given below, If you have any query about any Scholarship feel free to comment below we will try to guide you about that scholarship.

Download international format of CV writing, Research CVs, CV templates

List of Important Documents for Download - Free 2017

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home

Hello Electronics Lovers, as we know that its dream of every student to make a simple robot for their semester project at University. The Working function of this robot is simple, it will divert its path whenever it detects obstacles on its way. 

1) Car body :
                             You need to search for old Remote Control Car or make your own by using the wood frame and nut bolts. I made my own car, As you can see in the below picture.  
Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home
2) Dc Motors and ICs: 
                                        Kindly attach 4 Dc Motors accurately with front and back wheels of the car. With the help of a schematic diagram, you can easily connect each motor drive ic L293D with 4 Dc motors. Make your circuit on wire board and tied up above the car by using nuts bolts. 

 3) IR sensors :
Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home                              One of the most and important component used in this robot is Infrared Sensor (IR) Module, IR sensors work like eyes for this robot. IR sensor will emit infrared rays continuously in different directions for a short distance, whenever an obstacle comes on its way it will reflect those infrared waves back towards IR receiver led (Black one in the IR module). 
Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home An infrared receiver will send the commands to inform a microcontroller to divert its path because something is present in the track. If you want To increase the accuracy of this robot, for this purpose you need to use multiple IR sensor modules, it will help to cover and search the surrounding areas more precisely. 

Heart of this project is G16V8 Microcontroller, it will receive commands from different IR sensor module to avoid this robot from any kind of obstacle. Everyone knows that most ICs available in the market work in 5Vdc so for this purpose we have used 7805 regulator ic (Use Heat Sink for it) in this project, it will step down your 9v Dc to 5Vdc. 

Schematic Diagram : 

Learn how to make simple obstacle avoiding robot at home
 Rest of the project is easy and simple, otherwise, if you found any difficulty while making this project so don't hesitate to ask anything related to this project from us we are here to help you anytime. 

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Step by step tutorial on Interfacing of Seven Segment Display with Arduino in Proteus

Hello Electronics Lovers, today I am going to show you that how to interface Seven Segment display with Arduino in Proteus. I am assuming that everyone who is reading this post will know basics of Seven segment display, in short, seven segment display is an electronic component having the ability to show numeric data to a user. Normally you will find Seven Segments Displays easily in different colors in the market. Basically, seven segment display is the combination of Multiple LEDs, resistors, and an ic. It is available in Different sizes and shapes. 

Let's come to the point, in the first step you need to Download the source code for Seven segment display.  After downloading source code the next task is to make hex file from that code. For this purpose, you need to copy that code and put it on  Arduino Software (IDE). In past tutorial " Download Arduino Library for Proteus 7 & 8 (Updated version) ", I have explained the overall process in step no 5 that how to make Hex file from source code in Arduino Software (IDE).

I am assuming that latest version of Proteus simulation software has been installed on your pc. Before going to open Proteus software Kindly install Arduino libraries for proteus Download Arduino Library for Proteus 7 & 8 (Updated version).   

Once you have done all the above steps, go and search for Arduino and seven segment display in Proteus, make sure that you drag both components to the main window of Proteus correctly as shown in the given picture below. Connect your seven segment display and Arduino Uno properly with respective pins.

  A complete step by step tutorial on Interfacing of Seven Segment by using its library with Arduino in Proteus
Double click on Arduino board to upload a Hex file of seven segment display to Arduino board. The last and final step is to Run the simulation, hopefully, you will see numeric counting in seven segment display from 0 to 9 in a loop. If you want to add another display, LCD, and sensors to the existing circuitry. Yes, You can easily upgrade the above circuitry and code as per your requirement.  

If you found any difficulty while making this project in Proteus so don't hesitate to ask we are here to help you anytime. 

Monday, September 18, 2017

BlackBerry Keyone Review: Full Details, Features, Photos, Design and Display

Image result for blackberry keyone review cnetBlackBerry paired up with TCL (a Chinese corporation) to manufacture a Smartphone that just might be the 'next big hit'. With so much Smartphone fiasco in the market, we just want something absolutely original and unique. But from what we get every other day in the market, it's starting to feel like Smartphone manufacturers have run out of ideas. From the look of BlackBerry's product "BlackBerry KEYone"  it definitely shouts out unique, it resurrects a physical keyboard but what else does it have stocked up? And has BlackBerry provided its consumers with a device that will lure them towards itself? Maybe KEYone is BlackBerry's last chance to come out of the depths. We will briefly discuss this device.

Overall Rating: 8.5 / 10


  • Solid Design, well built
  • Physical Keyboard
  • Large battery
  • Fast Charging
  • Expandable Storage


  • Not so great on Entertainment
  • Camera Quality isn't impressive
  • Performance is slightly slow
  • Dual Speakers are missing


Blackberry was more focused on fabricating a productivity Smartphone. Coming with a sophisticated design it looks like its back in business. It shows off a soft textured black back with an anodized aluminum frame, the metal body is slick and well built. The slightly thicker aluminum body boosts prominent looking rear and front cameras and the side buttons. The Spacebar featured on the Keyboard doubles as the fingerprint sensor, its springy performance is quite impressive.
Blackberry has a slightly different approach in the positioning of its buttons. The power button can be found on the left side and the volume rocker on the left. You can find the 3.5 mm headphone jack on the top edge and a reversible USB-C charging port on the bottom edge. KEYone also includes a microSD card slot and a customisable Convenience key. At the bottom of the phone, you will also find the speaker grille (BTW sound quality is pretty decent). What we don't understand is why Blackberry opted for navigation keys up front and the Convenience key, they do feature a smart keyboard with a number of shortcut options. The rubber textured back and the overall thicker body makes the phone easy to handle, but it's obvious that it's not made for single-handed use.


The keyboard sitting at the front is definitely the center of attention. At the first glance it might look too small, but like Blackberry's previous versions you can easily get the grip of it. Getting used to it will take some time, some mistakes will be drawn into your text initially. The keys are clicky but soft and curved around the edges, it feels pretty good typing on it. One of the best features about the keyboard is that its got 52 customisable keys, long or short pressing any key will take you somewhere within seconds. Long pressing the "I" key will direct you to the home screen and instantly take you to Instagram, pressing the "e" key will take you to your emails and "b" will direct you to your browser. You can play with it all you want.
Having a keyboard up front does take some compromising with the display, KEYone houses the smallest display with an aspect ratio of 3:2. The screen is 4.5 inch IPS LCD display with a resolution of 1620 x 1080 pixels. It is bright and vibrant with elegantly balanced colors, but we cant get the same kick out of it that we get from a larger display. It's not the best for gaming or for watching videos.
KEYone runs on the midrange Qualcomm Snapdragon 625 processor with 3 GB of RAM. As compared to the high-end Smartphones that we get these days, KEYone doesn't pack the best power under its hood. Yet its performance is fairly well, you might face some problem with lag while loading graphics intensive apps or games, but once you're in everything works out fluently. BlackBerry did an amazing job in the battery department, KEYone comes powered with a 3,505 mAh battery. You can easily get about 6 hours of screen on time and about 4.5 hours for continuous use. It also comes with 2 modes for charging 'Charge only mode' and the 'Boost' mode. With the simple charge mode you get the regular fast charging from the Quick Charge 3.0, but with the Boost mode, you can quickly charge your Smartphone up to about 50% within 36 minutes.
The Camera on KEYone is just above average, featuring a 12 Megapixels rear shooter and an 8 Megapixels front Cam. The rear Camera has an aperture of f/ 2.o, the number of pixels and the lens are same as those on Google's Pixel. However, its result isn't the same. The pictures lack a significant amount of detail and sharpness even in daylight and in dim light the camera begs for optical image stabilization. The front selfie camera provides better quality in good light whereas in slightly dim conditions it faces the same problems.


Image result for blackberry keyone review cnetThe main attraction of BlackBerry KEYone is its high-tech keyboard. Its design works out well and is well built, the performance is fairly good. KEYone is one of the best phones we have gotten from BlackBerry in a while, and it's definitely a good effort. However, it misses out on a number of key points like the display, midrange CPU, and the camera. Because there are a lot of high-end Smartphones out there, KEYone will not be able to attract the attention of many consumers.


Screen Size: 4.5 inches
Resolution: 1620 x 1080 pixels
Battery Capacity: 3505 mAh
Internal Storage: 32 GB
Expandable Storage: 2 TB
Processor: Qualcomm Snapdragon 625
Operating System: Android 7.1
Rear Camera: 12 Megapixels
Front Camera: 8 Megapixels
Connectivity: Wi-Fi, GPS, Bluetooth, NFC

Sunday, September 10, 2017

What does it mean by Electromagnetism

Image result for electromagnetismStarting off with the definition of a Magnetic material:
Any material which has its atoms ordered such that it exhibits the properties of magnetism.

Any metal can be turned into a magnet giving it the characteristics of:

Temporary Magnetism: Rub a metal on an already existing magnet in one direction, this process will cause the metal to polarize and inherent magnetic properties. But this will only last for a small while.

Permanent Magnetism: If a metal is permanently polarized then it will not lose its magnetic properties. The best way to make a strong magnet is by inducing a magnetic field using an electric current.

In order to tell the strength of a magnet the units "Weber" and "Maxwell" are used, these units are defined using the "magnetic flux", Magnetic flux is the total number of magnetic lines passing through a unit area (denoted by Φ or ΦB). 

1 Maxwell (Mx) = 1 magnetic line of force
1 Weber (Wb) = 10^8 Maxwell

You cannot tell the strength of a magnet just by the number of magnetic lines of force passing through it, you need to know the relative area of the surfaces in comparison. Simply put it, you need to know the flux density (B). And you need to know the angle which the surface makes with the lines of force, (the angle between the normal of a surface and the flux).

Φ=BA ----> NΦ= NBA (for more than one turn) 
B= Φ/A ----> (Weber/ meter^2)

The flux density is measured using the unit "Tesla"

1 Tesla = 1 Weber/ meter^2 
similarly 1 Gauss = 1 Mx/ cm^2

1 Wb/m^2 = (10^8)/(100^2) 
= 10^4 Mx /cm^2
That means: 1 Tesla = 10^4 Gauss

Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic induction states

Faradays Law of Electromagnetic induction states that when ever a conductor is placed in a magnetic field such that the flux through it changes an EMF is induced in the conductor.
that means that: EMF is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux.
There are two types of induced EMFs. Namely Dynamically induced EMF and Statically induced EMF.

Dynamically induced EMF: Produced by either the movement of the conductor or the magnet.

Statically induced EMF: Produced by the change in current direction. Further more there are two types of statically induced EMFs
1) Self-induced EMF
2) Mutually induced EMF

Lens's Law states that a cause always opposes the effect. This law is also used to predict the direction of current flow, and it obeys the conservation law of energy.

Generators: These are devices or machines which convert mechanical energy to electrical energy using the concept of "Electro magnetic induction".

A generator, in fact, comprises of two parts, the engine, and the generator. The engine converts the fuel to mechanical energy and the generator converts the mechanical energy to electrical energy.

"A generator simply directs the flow of charges already present in a conductor coil"

The energy produced from a generator depends upon the following:

1) The strength of the magnetic field

2) The number of turns in the coil

3) Angle at which the conductor cuts the magnetic field

In order to find the direction of the current flow you must know the left-hand rule:
Left-Hand Rule:

1) Adjust your hand such that your index finger points toward the direction of the magnetic field (From north to south).

2) Point your thumb towards the direction of the movement of the conductor (it can be left, right, inward, outward).

3) Adjust your middle finger such that it makes an angle of 90 degrees with your index finger and the thumb, in this position the middle finger points towards the direction of the current flow.

Saturday, September 09, 2017

How does an AC electric generator work?

A Generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy, but how exactly does this process take place. What happens is that when a coil is rotated in a magnetic field an EMF is induced in it causing a current to flow in a specific direction (the direction of the current depends on the direction of the rotation of the coil or the direction of the magnetic field, and its direction can be determined by the right-hand rule).
Consider a bulb which is connected at the ends of the coil which is rotating in a magnetic field. Each time the flux through the coil changes it will cause a current flow in effect causing the bulb to light up. This no doubt is one method to get electric energy, but what will happen is that in this type of arrangement the coil will break due to continuous twisting. Here the use of "Brush Contacts arises". (Look at the figure below, this is an example of an elementary or single loop generator).
How does an AC electric generator work?
What are "brush contacts" and why are they used ???
Brush contacts and contacts commonly known as 'Slip Rings' are used at the ends of the coil. Slip rings are used to make electrical contact between the stationary and rotating conductors; thus enabling the stationary power source to transmit power to the rotating part. Slip rings are used to collect the alternating EMF from the windings, which is further collected by carbon brushes to an external circuit.   

Variable Positions Of The Loop:  
The angle variation during rotation between the normal of the coil and the magnetic field lines causes variation in the magnitude of the EMF produced. That EMF also depends upon the rate of change of flux through the coil. The figure below shows the different positions of the coil from 0 deg to 180 deg, and then from 180 to 360 deg.
How does an AC electric generator work?
At 0 degrees Position:
This position is also known as the "Neutral Plane"; In this position the loop is parallel to the magnetic lines of flux and there is maximum flux passing through the coil. Yet there is no production of EMF because there is no "Change in flux through the loop".
At 90 degrees Position:
After the loop has been rotated 90 degrees clockwise through the magnetic field the flux linkage through it now becomes zero. But the rate of change of flux through it was maximum, resulting in an induced EMF which climbs from zero to its peak value.
At 180 degrees Position:
Once again the coil is rotated 90 degrees clockwise resulting in the completion of a 180 degrees cycle. Here the loop is perpendicular to the magnetic lines of force which means that there is maximum flux density through it. The EMF falls back to zero.
At 270 degrees Position:
Up till the 180 degrees cycle, the polarity of the voltage had remained the same, because "the conductor's armature cutting through the southern magnetic field was the same" but now the polarity will change because "That armature will now be cutting through the northern magnetic field" and vice versa.
At 270 degrees the flux linkage through the loop is once again zero, but the rate of change of flux is maximum. In this position, the EMF induced goes up to its peak value, but this time it's in the reverse direction.
At 360 degrees Position:
The loop is rotated through another 90 degrees such that it has completed a rotation of 360 degrees. The loop has returned to its initial position and the flux linkage through it is maximum and the voltage decreases back to zero.

This type of voltage produced is Alternating Voltage.

Comparison between Arduino and Raspberry Pi - One Simple Rule to Choose the Right Board

Many leading projects require the use of development boards, they are the backbone of modern electronics. Which board needs to be used and where is what you need to be aware of. Two of the boards which I'm going to discuss today are "Arduino" and "Raspberry Pi" which are the most popular boards among students. Beginners find it hard to distinguish between which boards to use? and why is one board preferred over the other in certain situations? This article will help you to decide between the two.

Arduino is a microcontroller motherboard which provides a platform for building hardware and software systems and it is considered as one component in a computer. 

Arduino performs low intelligence tasks and it can only be assigned one program at a time. Such as:

*Open the garage door.

*Reading the temperature

*Making a robot for home security. 

*Burglar Alarm

Arduino does not function on an operating system.

Arduino is a very simple motherboard. It cannot be connected to any external devices and contains only small amount of storage memory. It does not have any keyboard or mouse input or a video output.

Raspberry pi:

Raspberry pi is commonly known as a general purpose full-fledged computer and can perform tasks like your desktop Pc. You can push your limits in coding and circuit making using Raspberry pi.

Raspberry pi is used to perform higher level processes and it can be assigned multiple numbers of tasks at a time. Such as:

*Designing a robot which performs multiple tasks.

*Performing intense calculations.

*Creating a webserver.

Unlike Arduino Raspberry Pi runs on an Operating System called the "Linux" Operating System which is specifically designed for it and is known as the Rasbian. However other Operating Systems like Windows 10 or Android can also be installed on Raspberry Pi. 

In Raspberry Pi you can interact with your program using external devices such as a keyboard and mouse, and you can also plug in a display. You can easily get access to input/output pins and can connect all types of devices including buzzers or whatever you may require.

Why Should You Use Arduino:

1) It is very simple to interface electronics equipment and the coding itself is much more simpler than raspberry. Without the need for networking.

2) It operates on a wide range of voltages and it requires less power.

3) Arduino can be easily turned ON or OFF without any risk of damage.

4) It's much cheaper.

5) Simple projects such as building a home automation system are much easier with Arduino where you do not to get to complex.

6) There is no Linux and software hectic.

Why Should You Use Raspberry Pi:

1) It is more complex and can carry out intense tasks like building a complex robot or turning on and off hundreds of lights in equal intervals, or if you're making a web server then Raspberry Pi is necessary.

2) Networking is provided via the Ethernet port present in the chip. So you can access internet, Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. 

3) Raspberry Pi is 40 times faster than Arduino.

4) You don’t have to waste your time going through programming languages, all you need is basic electronics knowledge.

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