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Saturday, 20 August 2016

How to interface HC-05 Bluetooth Module with Arduino

This is such part of project that uses Android mobile technology to control different appliances. To control various home appliances from mobile, Bluetooth dedicated application should be installed on his/her Android phone and by using that application you can send commands. Through Bluetooth technology we can wirelessly control appliances. Bluetooth module is used to receive those commands and this Bluetooth device is connected to Arduino. Upon particular commands This Arduino acts as controller and a hub that switches respective devices connected to the circuit. Hence appliances will be turned on or off depending on the command given. It is an application based Part, where u can control the electronic appliances in home by an android application. By using this app, you can control the electronic appliance in homes within a range of Bluetooth. The block diagram of interfacing Bluetooth with Arduino is shown below. 

HC-05 Chip is known as Bluetooth SPP (Serial Port Protocol) module. It is Used for transparent wireless serially connecting setup .It is fully dedicated Bluetooth V2.0+EDR (Enhanced Data Rate) 3Mbps Modulation Along with complete 2.4GHz radio transceiver. It has CSR Blue core 04-External single chip Bluetooth system with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology and with AFH (Adaptive Frequency Hopping Feature). It has the Dimensions as small as 12.7mmx27mm.
Experimental Setup HC-05 Pinout (Right): 

• TXD: Transmit Serial Data from HC-05 to Arduino Serial Receive.  NOTE: 3.3V HIGH level: OK for Arduino 

• KEY: If brought HIGH before power is applied, forces AT Command Setup Mode. LED blinks slowly (2 seconds) 

• VCC: +5 Power 

• GND: System / Arduino Ground 17 

• RXD: Receive Serial Data from Arduino Serial Transmit 

• STATE: Tells if connected or not

Connectioning

1. Connect TX (pin 11) from Arduino board to the RX pin of module. 

2. Connect RX (pin 10) from Arduino board to the TX pin of module. 

3. Connect 5v pin in Arduino board to the VCC pin of module. 

4. The GND pin of module to GND pin in Arduino board. 

5. Now open Arduino IDE(Any Version) and connect Arduino to the PC. 

6. Set the Serial Port For the Connection Arduino from Tools>>Port 

7. Upload the Program (Given) To the Board. 

8. Make Sure the Software Serial Pins of the Arduino is Correctly Initialized

Software program 

SoftwareSerial mySerial(10, 11); 

• This Command Set the Pin 10 to the Rx ok the Arduino and Tx of the Module should be connected 

• This command set the pin 11 to the Tx of the Arduino and Rx of the Module Should be connected 

• Make Sure that both the serial connections are set at same Baud Rate(For Convenience ) e.g 9600 

• Serial.begin(9600); Between Arduino and PC 

• mySerial.begin(9600); Between Arduino and Module 

Applications: 

• There is an increasing demand of smart homes where appliance react automatically to changing environmental conditions and can be easily controlled by a common device • The wireless technology is especially important in home where there exists hardly any infrastructure to interconnect intelligent appliances 

Conclusion: 

Bluetooth is undeniably resource which can make a home automated. People can control their electrical devices and setup desired actions through mobile.In future this product may have high potential for marketing as it is cheap and easy.

© Asad Saleh Hayat (Asadhayat5@yahoo.com) - Report page no 16 to 19 --Smart Home Automation

Why choosing Arduino and Mega 2560

There are numerous different microcontrollers and microcontroller platforms accessible for physical computing. These include Netmedia’s BX-24, Parallax Basic Stamp, MIT's Handy board, Phidgets, and numerous others offer comparative usefulness. These apparatuses take the chaotic subtle elements of microcontroller programming and wrap it up in a simple toutilize bundle. Arduino additionally rearranges the methodology of working with microcontrollers; moreover it offers many advantages to students, teachers and experienced workers: 

• Inexpensive - Arduino boards are moderately cheap compared with other microcontroller boards. The cheapest version of the Arduino module can be amassed by hand, and even the preassembled Arduino modules cost short of what $50. 

• Cross-platform - The Arduino programming runs multiple operating systems Windows, Macintosh OSX, and Linux working frameworks. So we conclude that Arduino has an advantage as most microcontroller frameworks are constrained to Windows.

 • Straightforward, clear programming method - The Arduino programming environment is easy to use for novices, yet sufficiently versatile for cutting edge customers to adventure as well. For educators, it’s favorably engaged around the Processing programming environment, so understudies finding ways to understand how to program in that environment will be familiar with the nature of Arduino.

• Open source and extensible programming. The Arduino program language is available as open source, available for development. It can be reached out through C++ libraries 3.4. 

Arduino Mega 2560: 
The Arduino Mega 2560 is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega2560 (datasheet). It has 54 digital input/output pins (of which 14 can be used as PWM outputs), 16 analog inputs, 4 UARTs (hardware serial ports), a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-toDC adapter or battery to get started. 

© Asad Saleh Hayat (Asadhayat5@yahoo.com) - Report page no 12 & 13 --Smart Home Automation

Friday, 19 August 2016

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Overview


In the recent years, the demand for higher data rate services such as multimedia, voice, and data traffic over both wired and wireless links increased tremendously with the advancement of information and communication technology. To transfer large amount of data required new modulation techniques which were not supported by theexisting 3rd generation (3G) schemes such as CDMA 2000 and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA). Meanwhile, a form of multi-carrier modulation called Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) received significant attention.

Some unique features offered by OFDM like its resistance to frequency selective fading make it comparable to single carrier systems. Usually, the data rate is increased by the single carrier systems with the expense of increased occupied bandwidth and decreased symbol duration. Therefore, wideband channels require complex equalizers to recover the original transmitted signal at the receiver side because these channels are very sensitive to frequency selective fading. OFDM splits the wide-band channel into a sequence of narrow-band channels that experience flat fading. Such arrangements then demands only single tap equalizers at the receiver side, reducing complexity significantly. Although, OFDM has many advantages over single carrier systems; however, it still suffers from many issues, i.e. sensitivity to carrier frequency offset and large Peak to Average Power Ratio(PAPR). The superposition of “N” independent equally spaced subcarriers at the Inverse FastFourier Transform (IFFT) at transmitter side produces large PAPR in time domain signal. If large PAPR is retained at transmitter side, it saturates High Power Amplifier (HPA) which in turn
produces undesirable distortion and out-of-band radiation and also degrades the Bit Error Rate
(BER) performance at the receiver side. Therefore, it is essential to find a way of reducing large
PAPR that allows for a more efficient HPA.

© Muhammad Shahab Shah -Thesis page no 1 -- COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX AND NON-COMPLEX VERSIONS OF SLM AND PTS PAPR REDUCTION SCHEMES IN OFDM SYSTEMS

Friday, 6 May 2016

How to add Arduino Gas Sensor Library in to Proteus ISIS 7 & 8

1) Download the Library Files by clicking the below button 


2) Paste these Three files GS.IDX, GSB.LIB and Gscode.HEX  in to Library folder 



3)  if you are using Proteus 8 then Library folder will be within the data Folder (Proteus 8 Professional\Data\LIBRARY )

4) Now open Proteus software and search for gas sensor ( you can get all gas sensor,s library from MQ-2 to MQ-9 )



5) Open arduino Software and Click on file and then Preference and tick both of the Option "Compilation and Upload " After writing your code, click on compile then you will get the Link of Your Hex file at the Output go to that place and get your Hex file.


6) How to Add Hex file in to Arduino so it,s easy Double click on arduino and then click on program File and Add your Hex file .


7) Now it,s time to test and simulate the Gas sensor in Proteus software, first of all double click on Gas sensor and add the Hex file ( Hex file you already download -- GSCODE.HEX) now 
when you turn test pin logic in to "1" it,s mean there is a gas in atmosphere by doing this the OUT pin logic will goes HIGH 



8) it,s time to Play With Gas sensors and Arduino in Proteus Enjoy ........Love you All .


Wednesday, 4 May 2016

Design a romantic and interesting PCB online on EasyEDA

Have you ever tried to design a romantic PCB for your lover or an interesting PCB for your children or friends on special day? Why not? PCB also could be an amazing gift which comes from your creativity. Here I’d like to share a romantic and practical PCB to you.

This is my PCB Board.Itlooks very simple but interesting, meaningful, romantic..... You can access the project here: Easyda


When PCB layout is completed on EasyEDA editor,it looks monotonous so it still needs more steps to make it vivid and nice.    
      

You could click the ‘image’ button in the PCB Tools menu on EasyEDA, and select an image in the new window of ‘Insert Image to PCB’, also, you can use Color Tolerance or Simplify Level function to adjust your image.When complete the above steps, you could press the button ‘Insert Image to PCB’, then you will see your image that have been already inserted to PCB.                        
             
.             Next, move the inserted image to the left of PCB
Of cause, you can change the layer you like and insert the image you like. If you decide to choose a new layer, you could operate as following image showed and the menu is on the right side.
If you want togain this romantic PCB,you also could directly order it from EasyEDA. Just need to click“Fabrication Output” button then redirect to the page of “PCB order”. 
 

Finally, fill in the form, save to cart, and complete you order.

If it’s the first time you notice and use EasyEDA which is the keynote of the above design, you could learn how to use EasyEDA quickly and easily after reading the tutorial. The tutorial is completed with videos that explain the operations, such as the diagram creation. About EasyEDA, it is is a free, web-based and easy-to-use EDA tool integrating powerful circuit design, mixed-mode circuit simulator and PCB design. EasyEDA is designed to give electrical engineers, educators, engineering students and electronics hobbyists an Easier EDA Experience.

                    The following video briefly presents the features of EasyEDA tool.

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