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Friday, 26 May 2017

Arduino UNO based project to control LEDs by using an android smartphone

Hi hello Electronics lovers, today I am going to share a simple and cool project with you people under a title Arduino UNO based project to control LEDs by using a mobile phone. You don't need high-level hardware or programming skills for this project.  This project is for beginners and it,s very easy so you can make this project at home or school. The theme of this project is to control 3 LEDs or any kind of load by using your Android based smartphone. In this project, your Smartphone will work like a remote control to turn ON and OFF or adjust the LED brightness wirelessly. To add beauty to the hardware, put Arduino UNO and Bluetooth module in a box and pull out LEDs carefully. In the first step you need to install the Android application into your smartphone, you can download Android application for this project by clicking here. Remember don't forget to enable install an app from Unknown sources option in your smartphone settings. 

Components Required 
  • Arduino UNO board
  • Android smartphone or Tablet.
  • Bluetooth Module HC 06.
  • LEDs.
  • Jumper wires

Hardware Connection setup for Bluetooth Module HC 06
  • Connect Vcc of HC06 to +5v of Arduino.
  • Connect GND of HC06 to GND of Arduino.
  • Connect Tx of HC06 to pin 10 of Arduino.
  • Connect Rx of HC06 to pin 11 of Arduino.

*Project Courtsey

Tuesday, 23 May 2017

How to add Capacitive Touch Sensor Library in to proteus 7 & 8

Step 1:  Firs of All Download Library Files ( A zip folder )

Step 2: Extract Zip Folder and Paste these three files named as TouchSensorTEP.LIB, TouchSensorTEP.IDX and TouchSensorTEP.HEX into Library folder of Proteus Software.

Step 3: If you are using Proteus 8 then Library folder will be within the data Folder (Proteus 8 Professional\Data\LIBRARY ) OR ProgramData (C:\ProgramData\Labcenter Electronics\Proteus 8 Professional\LIBRARY)

Step 4: Now open Proteus software and search for Touch sensor
How to add Capacitive Touch Sensor Library in to proteus 7 & 8

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Step 5: How to Add Hex file into Arduino so it,s easy Double click on Touch sensor module and then click on program File and Add your Hex file (You can find Hex file inside zip folder -- TouchSensorTEP.HEX )

How to add Capacitive Touch Sensor Library in to proteus 7 & 8
Step 6Now it,s time to test and simulate the Touch sensor module in Proteus software. When you turn test pin logic into "1" it,s mean that your sensor is sensing the touch and when it's LOW it means that there’s no touch.
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Step 7: It,s time to Play With Touch sensor module in Proteus Enjoy ........Love you All.

Saturday, 20 May 2017

Helpful Material Related to Multilevel Inverters


A DC-to-AC converter whose output is of desired output voltage and frequency is called an inverter. Based on their operation the inverters can be broadly classified into 
  1.  Voltage Source Inverters(VSI) 
  2.  Current Source Inverters(CSI) 
Helpful Material Related to Multilevel Inverters

A voltage source inverter is one where the independently controlled AC output is a voltage waveform. A current source inverter is one where the independently controlled AC output is a current waveform. On the basis of connections of semiconductor devices, inverters are classified as 

  1. Bridge inverters 
  2. Series inverters 
  3. Parallel inverters 

Some industrial applications of inverters are for adjustable- speed AC drives, induction heating, standby aircraft power supplies, UPS (uninterruptible power supplies) for computers, HVDC transmission lines etc.

There are many types of Inverters but I have figured out commonly used inverters:
  1. Square wave inverters
  2. Modified sine wave inverters
  3. Multilevel inverters
  4. Pure sine wave inverters
  5. Resonant inverters
  6. Grid tie inverters
  7. Synchronous inverters
  8. Stand-alone inverters
  9. Solar inverters


I have attached Student Thesis copy under a tilted "LEVEL INVERTER" from  DEPARTMENT OF EEE, ICET  in pdf form,  In this Thesis the author explained Multilevel inverter and other theory related to inverters from basic to professional in a conceptual way.  
This thesis is organized into Ten chapters. Chapter 1 presents Introductions to Multilevel Inverters and other switching techniques. Chapter 2 presents the LITERATURE SURVEY and discussed the past related work in a decent way. Chapter 3 focuses on different MODULATION SCHEMES.In this chapter, the author explained different modulations schemes such as PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION, PULSE WIDTH MODULATION, PULSE POSITION MODULATION, PULSE CODE MODULATION and at the end, he explained ADVANTAGES OF PWM. In Chapter 4 Author investigated working principle of SEVEN LEVEL INVERTER and it's CONTROL STRATEGIES. In Chapter 5 Author discussed it,s simulation models and its output waveforms. THREE PHASE MULTILEVEL INVERTER have been discussed in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7 author presents the verified and final Hardware results of the 7 level inverter. Different Topologies of Multilevel inverters have been discussed in chapter 8. MULTILEVEL INVERTER HARMONICS ANALYSIS has been explained in chapter 9.  In Chapter 10 author concludes the thesis and discusses its future work. 

Thursday, 18 May 2017

Calculate Radar Cross Section (RCS) Of Complex Objects in MATLAB by using POFACETS GUI

This software has been developed by David C. Jenn. POFACETS operates on Physical Optics (PO) approximation for predicting the RCSs of complex objects. It utilizes the scientific computational features of MATLAB and its graphical-user-interface (GUI) functions to provide an efficient calculation of RCS. In this study, we use the latest and updated version (4.2 released in 2015) of POFACETS. The latest version improved computational speed and accuracy.

POFACETS GUI and its Capabilities 

POFACETS approximates scattering objects by arrays of triangles (facets) and uses superposition to compute the total RCS of the object. Its GUI consists of five modules: Design Model Manually, Design Model Graphically, Calculate Monostatic RCS, Calculate Bistatic RCS and Utilities as shown in Fig.3.8. POFACETS operates in two graphical modes, i:e: Design Model  

Predection of Radar Cross Section (RCS) in MATLAB
Manually and Design Model Graphically. By clicking Design Model Manually tab, a new window will appear where a user can create the geometry of the target and can edit previously designed models. A user can load and merge standard models easily with the help ofDesign Mode Graphically option. POFACETS has a built-in library of common geometrical shapes, that are readily available for the users. 3D model of an object can be rotated, scaled, zoomed-in and zoomed-out in the designing mode. POFACETS has an ability to calculate monostatic or bistatic RCS of the object for the parameters specified by the user and displays plots for its model geometry and RCS.Calculate Bistatic RCS tab GUI display is depicted in Fig. 3.9. To find RCS of an object, a user will first upload the object file by clicking theLoad File button. In incident angle dialog box, the user can specify incident angles fields for θ and φ. Observation or bistatic angle range can be set with feasible increment. By default, Observation Angle range is set from 0to 360. By selecting suitable values in Surface Roughness fields, RCS of an object with the desired material can be simulated. With the help of built-in material library, users can set the surface resistivity for their objects. InSurface Roughness, users can specify roughness parameters, i:e:, correlation distance and standard deviation for an object. In Computational Parameter dialog box, a user can specify incident polarization, operating frequency in GHz, and Taylor series. We can easily set a mode of polarization for the incident angle, at incident polarization field Theta-TM polarization corresponds to vertical polarization, while Phi-TM polarization corresponds to horizontal polarization. For 

Copyright ||  Characterization of Spatial Reflection Coefficient for Ground-to-Aircraft and Satellite-to-Aircraft Communication Links || Master Thesis by Abid Jamal || Capital University of Science and Technology Islamabad || Contact with Author

Predection of Radar Cross Section (RCS) in MATLAB
more accurate results, users can increase the number of terms in Taylor series field. As an increase in the number of terms reduces the computational speed; therefore, there is a trade-off between time and accuracy. Before going to click on Calculate RCS button, there are two buttons available for users in the Computational Parameter dialogue box, i:e: Show 3D Display and Show Polargraph  Graph. This will display the linear simulated RCS graph if none of the buttons has been selected. Under utility tab, more options including Import file, export file, and change in the material database. Moreover, users can import AutoCAD (.STL) file to POFACETS with the help of Utility tab.

Wednesday, 17 May 2017

Difference between Monostatic Radar and Bistatic Radar

Monostatic Radar

When both transmitting and receiving antennas are placed close to each other in one radar station at the same location for the detection of an object is known as monostatic radar. There is only one radar, containing the same Tx and Rx antenna located on the ground for the detection of an aircraft’s. The typical geometry of monostatic radar is shown in Fig.1.2. Transmitting and receiving Gain in the case of monostatic radar would be the same, and Gt and Gr must be equals to G = Gr = Gt,Eq (1.1) can be written as:
The maximum range of a radar, Rmax , is the distance beyond which the target cannot be detected. It occurs when the received signal powerPr just equals the minimum detectable signal Smin . By rearranging terms and substitute Smin = Pr in Eq (1.2) gives:

Monostatic Radar
Although this form of the radar equation excludes many important factors and usually predicts high values for maximum range, it depicts the relationship between the maximum radar range and the targets RCS. 

Bistatic Radar

When both transmitting and receiving antennas are placed apart from each other at some considerable distance is called bistatic radar. A system in which there are one transmitter and multiple separated receivers is known as multi-static radar. The geometry of bistatic radar is shown in Fig.1.3. If α the bistatic angle, is small then bistatic RCS is similar to that of monostatic RCS.

Bistatic Radar Geomtery

Where, σb is the bistatic radar cross section (in m2), Dt the distance between target and transmitter, Dr the distance between target and receiver.  

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