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Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Top 5 Smartphones of 2017 with the best Battery Life

Purchasing a Smartphone has become not only a need of the age but it's also 'style'. We want the best looking, the long lasting, the best camera phone and a phone that can with-hold enough battery juice to stay with you through out your entire day.
The same is the case with Smartwatch fanatics, especially those who love sports watches and tend on keeping a record of their health.   

Not only do we want the best, but we also want the latest Smartphones. So I will provide you some guidance to the latest Smartphones and those Smartphones that can give you the longest battery life. 



1) Moto Z Play:

Motorola's Moto Z Play comes powered with a battery capacity of 3510 mAh. Z Play has been tested to last for up to two days (44 to 48 hours), even with more than average usage. This mobile also comes with an amazing pixel quality (a 16 Megapixels rear Camera accompanied with a 5 Megapixels front camera).  

2) Samsung Galaxy S8:

Samsung's Latest Galaxy S8 comes with its superb 'infinity' display and a display resolution of 2960 x 1440 pixels. This Smartphone is no doubt a beauty. Coming to the battery it won't disappoints you in that sector either, it comes packed with a 3000 mAh battery. 

3) Blackberry Keyone:

Blackberry launched a pretty decent looking Smartphone with a high-tech keyboard. Keyone boasts a 3500 mAh battery, not only do you get a longer lasting battery but it also charges quickly (comes with Quick Charge and Boost charge mode).

4) OnePlus 5:

OnePlus 5 can provide a pretty solid battery life considering it packs a battery of 3300 mAh. Even with Auto-brightness, it can easily last for about a full day.

5) ZenFone 3 Zoom  

This Smartphone packs a whopping "5000 mAh" of battery capacity. ZenFone 3 Zoom has been tested to last more than 17 hours with heavy continuous usage. So this Smartphone So Far is THE BEST Smartphone with the LONGEST Battery life.   

You must also check out the following Smartphones if you're in need for a longer lasting phone and the latest of the lot.  
  • LG X Power
  • Huawei Mate 9
  • Moto G5 Plus
  • Google Pixel XL
  • Blu Energy XL

Monday, August 14, 2017

What does it mean by Synchrotron and its Application In Physics

Ever since the discovery of electrons millions of scientific breakthroughs have been made. Cultivating the behavior of the atomic world is the pillar of scientific success.

Accelerating atomic particles is the need for innovation and creation in the world of physics. Scientists try to increase and decrease the speed to atomic particles and study their properties. It is also required that the speed of electrons may be increased such as to approach the speed of light. 


for this particular purpose, a "Synchrotron" is used. A synchrotron is a large machine (a cyclic particle accelerator), as large as the size of a football field. It is used to accelerate electrons to the speed of light. This machine produces light by using radio-frequency waves and powerful electromagnets to continuously increase the speed of the electrons. 

This device comprises a stainless steel tube in which a negatively charged electron is projected and a magnetic field bends the path of the electron to its closed loop form, the magnetic field effectively synchronizes to the increasing kinetic energy of the particle. 

When the speed of the electron is increased it starts to emit radiations in different spectra of light comprising Ultraviolet light, Infrared radiations, visible light and X-ray radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum. Scientists can pick out different radiations by analysis of their individual wavelengths for experimenting with their samples. 

Applications of Synchrotrons: 

Synchrotrons play a vital role in many scientific fields and development in countless researchers, including medical researchers, mineral exploration, environmental sciences, engineering, biosciences and even agriculture.  

Thursday, August 10, 2017

How wave shaping and modulation works

From one of my previous articles and of course your own knowledge you are familiar by now, s to how we receive all our audio and video signals and how we watch all our transmissions. 
Waves play an essential role in this platform and what’s bigger is the task of "Modulation", Modulation is the basis on which we are able to do every other task on our mobiles, laptops, TV's and radios. Modulation: Modulation is the process by which one or more properties of a periodic wave (carrier signal) is changed by a modulating signal that contains the information to be transferred. 

I’m just going to give a basic insight into a specific type of modulation, "Pulse-Width Modulation". Pulse-Width Modulation: Pulse-Width modulation (PWM) is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal. Pulse-Width Modulation uses a rectangular pulse wave whose pulse width is modulated resulting in the variation of the average value of the waveform. Basic Operation: The Pulse Width Modulator Converts the varying signal into a square wave which has a constant amplitude and frequency, but the square wave changes its duty cycle in accordance to the applied message signal. 

The circuit shown is the basic circuit of a pulse-width modulator. The first op-amp used is an integrator also known as a low pass filter. When we apply a square wave the output at the low pass filter will be a triangular wave. We also apply a sine wave as the message signal. Which will be mixed with the triangular wave (it acts as an adder). Hence the output generated at pin 6 of the first op-amp will be the sum of the triangle and sine wave.

The summed Audio and triangle waves are used as the input for the comparator, the output which will be generated is a square wave having a duty cycle corresponding to the time period that the triangle wave is 'positive with respect to the reference level'.

How Barcodes and Barcode Scanners Works

Remember those black and white bars on every other manufactured product. Shampoos, cereal boxes and on every beauty product, these intermediate black, and white lines are called "Barcodes". 
Barcodes as many of you probably think are not just zebra textures to enhance the beauty of the already captivating product. These codes actually carry within themselves a series of information relating to the production source and price of the product. These barcodes first appeared on a pack of chewing gum produced by the Wrigley Company, after that they were used on every item that you set eyes on in a store. 

This pattern of white and black lines carry in themselves information through which you can track the item, they also have the price etched in them along with the stock level. So if you have to reprice all the items you can do so easily by simply varying the information regarding the barcode. If you're running a big part of Old-Navy or Wal-Mart how can you be sure that you are selling all your items and they are not being stolen, bar codes help out a lot on that as well? A thief in wall-mart will get caught before he steps out. 

To run a bar code-based system you need three parts. First is the central computer which keeps the record of your sold items, the price of all products and a number of items you have left and how many you have run out on. Second are the barcodes you already have on the products and third and the most important is the barcode scanner present at every check out point. 

Working of the Barcode-Scanner:
Most important is to be able to read the barcodes. The barcode scanners quickly read the white and black lines and feed them to a computer which quickly displays the coded information. 
There are three parts to a barcode scanner:
Illumination System: The scanner shines a red LED light or laser light onto the code. Keep in mind that the white areas of the barcode will reflect more light and the black areas will reflect the least. 

Sensor/Converter: The sensor will achieve the reflected light in the form of an analog signal. Which will be a set of on-off pulses corresponding to illumination (white stripes) and lack of illumination (black stripes). This signal will be further detected by a converter which will convert it to the form of binary digits of 1's and 0's (e.g. 1011001). Decoder: A decoder will decipher these binary digits to the ASCII text format. This decoded information is finally perceived by the computer in decimal format. 

In this article, I only discussed 'Linear Barcode’s and about Linear Barcode-scanners, However, there is also a more complex format "2-D bar codes". Which cannot be deciphered using a linear scanner but require a technology of their own.

Don't Throw Away Your Old Electronics


Do you have your old computers and laptops laying around waiting to be thrown away?? Are you intending on throwing it away or selling it?

 Maybe you would change your course once you found about many ways you can utilize your old electronics to create fascinating equipment. I'm going to highlight some exciting things you can make from your electronics. 

1) Make an External Hard Drive: 
I bet you have seen all that stuff on T.V in which people burn stuff using lasers. Now you can make one by using the following components from your computer along with a 'tutorial'.These days with the number of software's and games we install and the constant saving of pictures of videos it becomes a pain when you run out of disk space. So you can transform your computers hard drive into an external and portable hard drive. 



2) Make a burning laser: * Old DVD Drive 
* An LM317
* A resistor
* An Aixiz Module 
* 6-volt battery pack 
That rounds up to pretty "Cheap" 



3) Make Some Money: 
You can dismantle your computer and take out all the working components, you can sell them and you can also save them for making your own electronic circuits. 



4) Use of Keyboard: 
You can get really creative with your keyboard, you can make a wallet using the circuit in the keyboard. You can make a keyboard hand bag (how cool can it get). Use your old keyboard keys to make keyboard cuff links. 



5) Create your own media station: 
You can download all your favorite music and videos into your computer and even connect it to an external hard drive. Just set up your favorite media player and you can listen to f.m or even interpret it with a TV tuning system.

How Touchscreen works is it Magic or Electronics


When touch screens started getting popular, I remember watching this video in which a 5-year-old was told that.. "it's magic", there is a magician trapped in the device which shape shifts everything on the screen when we swipe it. That was actually humiliating, but now we are a long way from the use of touchscreens. So it's important we know the basic working of our touch screens. Sorry, its not 'magic' is the work of 'Electronics'. 
This article is focused on two types of touch screens "Capacitive touch screens" and "Resistive touch screens". 

*Capacitive Touch Screens Capacitive touch screens work by detecting any conductive element (Our fingers act like conductors). These screens are made up of a number of conductive layers and are covered by a protective layer of glass (Gorilla glass touch screens are the most protective). When the screen is touched using a conductive element at any location, a circuit is completed for that location. Further more there are two types of Capacitive touch screens. 

1) Surface Capacitive: It comprises of sensors aligned at the corners of the touch screen, the surface is covered evenly with a transparent conductive material. The location of the touch is registered by the ratio of the flow of current to the cornered electrodes.

2) Projected Capacitive: This comprises of a grid system containing two electrodes named X and Y. When a conductive element touches any panel on the grid, its electric field changes and the sensors can automatically detect the location of the touch. 

*Resistive Touch Screens: These screens actually require that pressure is applied; for example the ATM touch screens, if you don't apply enough pressure no input will be detected. 
A Resistive touch screen contains two conductive layers. A Resistive layer and a conductive layer both separated by equally spaced dots creating air gaps between the layers. When pressure is applied at any point, it causes the outer screen to bend in to touch the other conductive screen, this causes a change in the flow of current. Hence the location of the touch is automatically detected by sensors.


Saturday, August 05, 2017

How to use power in an efficient way at home to reduce Electricity bill

Power savings is often called alternate energy or an alternate source of energy. Five years from now, if we are able to cool the same amount of food using 20 per cent less electricity, we could say that we gained 20 per cent more electricity or power capacity because the 20 per cent savings could then be used by other people, equipment or appliances requiring electricity. 

Globally, energy efficiency is a big component of energy conservation. It allows us to have the same quality of service (lighting, cooling, heating, entertainment, productivity, mobility etcetera). 

The power an appliance uses is measured in Watts or kiloWatts (1000 Watts). So if you see ‘W’ or ‘kW’ on your appliance's back or its packaging, that shows you the amount of power it uses. For instance, an 18W energy saver bulb uses 18 Watts of power in an instant. If you run that bulb for five hours, the amount of electricity it uses is: 

kWh is the unit of electricity most companies use globally to bill their customers. 

If your appliance does not show how much power it uses, it should at least mention the amount of current it draws in Amperes (Amps or A). In that case, you can easily determine the power it uses:

 In Pakistan, the voltage provided is officially 230V (240V for KESC), however, in reality, it can fluctuate between 200 and 240V, based on the connection. But assuming the official value of 230V, we can easily calculate how much power our 1-ton AC would use if it draws 5.5 amperes of current. 

in this article, I put forward some useful suggestions how to save power in homes so that useful power can not be overuse and electricity bills will be reduced. 

1.Electric heaters might look innocent but they can consume a large amount of power very quickly. The classic example is an oil column heater used to heat a room overnight. You might think the heater doesn't use much… Until you get your next electricity bill!

 For example, if you had just one 2 kW electric heater running for 10 hours per day it would consume 20 kWh (or about $5 per day in electricity). 

So, despite the fact that portable electric heaters plug into normal power outlets, you should be very careful how much you use them. If you are going to use an electric heater try using a foot mat heater like this or an electric blanket. 

At least you can see a portable electric heater. Some of the worst electric heating culprits remain invisible to the user. 

Examples of this include under floor electric heating, ceiling electric heating, and heated towel rails. Heating circuits like these can rack up high bills very quickly because they have a high capacity and are often left running all day. Some types of in-slab or ceiling electric heating can be left on without the occupants even noticing. 

2. In the typical home, air conditioning uses more electricity than anything else—16% of total electricity used. In warmer regions, AC can be 60-70% of your summer bill. For central AC, your thermostat might already have a timer built-in. If not, you can replace your thermostat with a programmable one. 

For window unit AC's, many modern units have a timer built in. If not, you can use a simple plug-in timer if your AC has a mechanical On/Off switch (i.e., you physically move it into a different position when you turn the AC on). But plug-in timers usually don't work if the On/Off switch is electronic (i.e., you push a soft button on a panel to turn the AC on or off). 

3.Heat/cool only the parts of your home that you're using. Heating/cooling your whole house is more expensive than just part of it. If you're not using your whole house, don't pay to heat/cool the whole thing! Instead, use space heaters and AC in the rooms that you actually use. 

4.Turn it off when you don't need it. Turn your heat off (or way down) at night, and when you're away from home. it does not cost more to reheat the home than it does to constantly heat it. 

5.Most homes that have a swimming pool will find that its electricity consumption is responsible for more than 30% of their energy costs. 

Swimming pools use electricity in two main ways. Firstly, the filter pump is used to circulate water and run the pool cleaner. Secondly, the heating system, if present, requires additional electricity for its pumps. 

Pool shops and swimming pool installers are notorious for exacerbating this problem. Despite considerable improvements to swimming pool pump efficiency over the years, they still install high capacity, over-spec filter pumps. Also, because they don't have to pay your electricity bill, they set the pump to run for 8 hours or more per day. Running a pump for this long is simply not necessary in most cases. 

Additionally, many swimming pool owners think they are saving energy by having solar pool heating. Unfortunately, this is not usually the case. Although the sun is heating the water, circulation pumps are still needed to capture and use this energy. 

6.Lighting is one of the easiest areas to save in. You can start saving a whopping 70-90% right away by simply screwing in new LED or CFL lights. And if you're concerned about mercury from CFL bulbs breaking, you can either use a CFL that has a plastic cover or use an LED bulb instead 

7.In most homes, the refrigerator is the second-largest user of electricity (13.7%), right after the air conditioner (14.1%). (Dept. of Energy) With most appliances, you save energy by using them less, but you can't very well do that with your fridge. The main way to save money with your fridge is to use an efficient model. New fridges aren't just a little more efficient, they're incredibly more efficient. 

8.A typical desktop computer uses about 65 to 250 watts, Add another 20-40 watts for an LCD monitor, or about 80 watts if you have an old-school 17" CRT. And don't forget related devices. My cable modem uses 7 watts.Most laptop computers use about 15-60 watts, far less than desktops. 

9.Most TV's use about 80 to 400 watts, depending on the size and technology. use LCD or led tv for power savings. 

10.use correct values of capacitors in your fans, fridges, motors I;e in your inductive loads so that your power factor remain 1 other wise home wiring will be over loaded.

11. dry your clothes by natural heat because iron is heaviest load in your home it can take up to 10 A current. 

12.check your home wiring after 1 year for any loop wires or shorts or burning switches. use circuit breaker instead of fuses which might be placed incorrectly by heavy wires. 'save power even if you can buy it easily, don't waste it'. save it for other peoples because money can not light up your home or run your water pump it is the power that can do it for you.

This Article has been written by Mr. WAQAR AHMED, Dept of applied physics {major in electronics} uok.

Thursday, July 27, 2017

Production Of Ethanol As A Renewable Energy Resource

Renewable Energy comprises of 0.5 % Ethanol which is produced from crops like sugarcane and wheat. Ethanol is a clean-burning high-octane motor fuel and is used for heating purposes as well as in automobiles. However, as you can see the production of Ethanol is minor in comparison to the Energy production from Hydro power or Biomass. 

The consumer need of sugar and wheat is first fulfilled in each country, and what ever is left over as the residue is further processed to Ethanol. Every year the US produces the highest amount of Ethanol in alignment to which it has started manufacturing flexible cars which can operate on Ethanol as well as "Gasohol". 

At the moment Ethanol is produced mostly from wheat and sugarcane. Progress is being made to enhance its products primarily in the USA.


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